Sultan Salahuddin Ayubi History
Sultan Salahuddin Ayubi History, In 1169, Salahuddin, at the age of 31, became the commander of the Syrian troops in Egypt and vizier of the Fatimid caliphate there. When Nur al-Din died in 1174, Salahuddin declared himself sultan of Egypt and founded the Ayyubid dynasty.
At the behest of Nur al-Din, Saladin, alongside his uncle Shirkuh, was dispatched to Egypt in 1164 under the auspices of the Fatimid Caliphate. Their purpose was to reinstate Shawar as vizier to al-Adid, a young Fatimid caliph. This led to a battle for power between Shirkuh and Shawar once he was back in office. Simultaneously, Saladin earned promotion within the Fatimid government for his role in fending off Crusader attacks and for his amiable relationship with al-Adid. After Shawar’s assassination and Shirkuh’s death in 1169, al-Adid appointed Saladin as vizier. During this tenure, Saladin – being a Sunni Muslim – chipped away at the Fatimid dynasty; after al-Adid perished in 1171, he disbanded the Isma’ili Shia Muslim caliphate based in Cairo and brought Egypt into alignment with Baghdad’s Sunni Abbasid Caliphate.
In the years that followed, Nur al-Din successfully conquered Yemen and subdued pro-Fatimid uprisings in Egypt – unfortunately he did not live long enough to witness the monumental accomplishments of his successor. Under Saladin’s governance, Damascus was overtaken at Hama and Homs’ request and his success at the Battle of Horns of Hama caused him to be recognized as “Sultan of Egypt and Syria” by Caliph al-Mustadi. After two unsuccessful attempts on his life, Saladin concluded his campaign in Islamic Syria by conquering Aleppo in 1182; however Mosul remained firmly under Zengid control.